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Usted está aquí: Inicio Acerca del CLAD Publicaciones Revista del CLAD Reforma y Democracia Artículos por número publicado 075, Octubre 2019 The Territorial Policy in Unitary Countries of the Andean Zone: Mutability and Gap of the Subnational Regime
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The Territorial Policy in Unitary Countries of the Andean Zone: Mutability and Gap of the Subnational Regime

Osvaldo Henríquez Opazo and Esteban Valenzuela Van Treek

This article explains and compares the historical evolution that emerged in the process of the design and architecture of the territorial policy in unitary countries of the Andean area of South America, based in the observation of the territorial dimension of power that allows us to observe the changes in the institutions. Barrios-Suvelza (2014) has raised, by incorporating in the simple/compound dichotomy, the analytical distinction on the normative capacity of the different territorial levels that arise from the constitutional norm, where the simple State is one that has a single order with regulatory capacity, in the context of an historical comparative analysis. The centrality responds to the analytical differentiation of the constitutional changes of reform and evolution, as well as the processes of displacement and addition over the created institutions. This will allow us to identify how the territorial organization is structured, the existing tensions between centralization/decentralization in the constitutional design and its real applicability, and if these arise from critical circumstances. The patterns on how the organization of the territory in the unitary States is structured and mutated are investigated. The results of this study show differences in the dynamics of constitutional change and the actual dynamics of its application, proposing that this would depend on the actors’ ability to execute and maintain these regulatory changes over time. In the review of the macro-historical process of territorial policy, a low enforcement of the constitutional norms is observed in the application of its institutional designs, which presents difficulties in modifying the architectures and organizations at the territory. In the same way, the replacement of the Constitutions through reforms or additions generally promotes a displacement of the existing institutions and is more dynamic and discontinuous than real change.

 

Key words: Territorial Policy; State Evolution; Unitarianism; Centralization; Decentralization; Local Administration; Reform Strategy; Chile; Colombia; Peru 

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